Friday, May 31, 2019

Brown v. Board of Education Decision Essay examples -- Civil Rights Mo

The disconnected Promise Histories, like ancient ruins, are the fictions of empires. While everything forgotten hands in dark dreams of the past, ever jeopardise to return..., a quote from the movie Velvet Goldmine, expresses the thoughts that many supporters of integration may have felt because no one sincerely yours knew the effects that one study verdict could fix. The brown v. Board of Education finis was a very important watershed during the Civil Rights Movement. However, like roughly progressive decisions, it did not create an effective solution because no duration limit was ever attached. James Baldwin realized that this major oversight would lead to a broken promise. Before the decision of Brown v. Board of Education, many people accepted indoctrinate segregation and, in most of the southern states, required segregation. Schools during this time were supposed to uphold the eliminate but equal standard set during the 1896 type of Plessy v. Ferguson however, most, if not all, of the black schools were not comparable to the white schools. The resources the white schools had for sale definitely exceed the resources given to black schools not only in quantity, but also in quality. Brown v. Board of Education was not the kickoff case that assaulted the public school segregation in the south. The title of the case was shortened from Oliver Brown ET. Al. v. the Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. The official titled include reference to the other twelve cases that were started in the early 1950s that came from South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware and the District of Columbia. The case carried Oliver Browns name because he was the only virile parent fighting for integration. The case of Brown v. Board o... ...le knowing their identity, so that they do not have to face the judgments of others. Man is least himself when he talks in his own someone Give him a mask and hell tell you the truth (Velvet Goldmine).Works CitedBaldwin, James. Down at the Cross. 1955. James Baldwin Collected Essays. Ed. Toni Morrison. freshly York depository library of America, 1998. 63-84.Ewing, James. Desegregation Progress Report. freshly York Times 26 Sep. 1954.Integration Gain is Noted in South. New York Times 7 Jul. 1957.Irons, Peter. Jim Crows Children The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision. New York Viking Penguin, 2002.Text of Supreme Court Decision Outlawing Negro Segregation in the Public Schools. New York Times 18 whitethorn 1854.Velvet Goldmine. Dir. Todd Hayes. Perf. Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Ewan McGregor, Christian Bale, Toni Collette. Miramax, 1998. Brown v. Board of Education Decision Essay examples -- Civil Rights Mo The Broken Promise Histories, like ancient ruins, are the fictions of empires. While everything forgotten hands in dark dreams of the past, ever threatening to return..., a quote from the movie Velvet Goldmine, expresses the thoughts that many s upporters of integration may have felt because no one truly knew the effects that one major verdict could create. The Brown v. Board of Education decision was a very important watershed during the Civil Rights Movement. However, like most progressive decisions, it did not create an effective solution because no time limit was ever given. James Baldwin realized that this major oversight would lead to a broken promise. Before the decision of Brown v. Board of Education, many people accepted school segregation and, in most of the southern states, required segregation. Schools during this time were supposed to uphold the separate but equal standard set during the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson however, most, if not all, of the black schools were not comparable to the white schools. The resources the white schools had available definitely exceed the resources given to black schools not only in quantity, but also in quality. Brown v. Board of Education was not the first case that assaulted the public school segregation in the south. The title of the case was shortened from Oliver Brown ET. Al. v. the Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. The official titled included reference to the other twelve cases that were started in the early 1950s that came from South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware and the District of Columbia. The case carried Oliver Browns name because he was the only male parent fighting for integration. The case of Brown v. Board o... ...le knowing their identity, so that they do not have to face the judgments of others. Man is least himself when he talks in his own person Give him a mask and hell tell you the truth (Velvet Goldmine).Works CitedBaldwin, James. Down at the Cross. 1955. James Baldwin Collected Essays. Ed. Toni Morrison. New York Library of America, 1998. 63-84.Ewing, James. Desegregation Progress Report. New York Times 26 Sep. 1954.Integration Gain is Noted in South. New York Times 7 Jul. 1957.Irons, Peter. Jim Crows Children The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision. New York Viking Penguin, 2002.Text of Supreme Court Decision Outlawing Negro Segregation in the Public Schools. New York Times 18 May 1854.Velvet Goldmine. Dir. Todd Hayes. Perf. Jonathan Rhys Meyers, Ewan McGregor, Christian Bale, Toni Collette. Miramax, 1998.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Ego and the Id Essay -- essays research papers

Over the years, people have wondered what goes on in a persons mind that guides them to meet their needs. Sigmund Freud developed a system of personality that boldly attempts to explain the course of personality and what was it origins. Freud theory assumes that stars personality is shaped and some powerful inner forces motivate ones behavior. According to Freud, personality differences pay off from the different ways in which people deal with their underlying drives. By picturing a continuing battle between antagonistic parts of personality, Freud was subject to develop three systems that make up the total personality. The three systems of personality are the id, ego, and the superego. If the three systems work unneurotic in harmony and unite together to form one complete organization, it enables one to create a positive transaction with the environment. If the systems are fighting with each different, one is said to be dissatisfy with himself or the world. By examining the e go, the id, and the superego, one should see how these three systems of personality play an important role in the development of ones personality. In doing so one should understand what conscious and unconscious, and the functions of the id, ego, and superego. Freud did not invent the idea of the conscious versus the unconscious. However, he was responsible for making it popular. What you are of aware of at any particular upshot is called being conscious. By being conscious you are aware of certain things such as your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, and fantasies. All of our knowledge is bound up with consciousness. awareness is the surface of the mental The Ego and the Id 3 apparatus. All perceptions, whether it is received from both within and with bulge out, are conscious. Freud (1960) said that very powerful mental processes of ideas exist which layabout produce all the effects of the mental life that ordinary ideas do, though they themselves do not become conscious (p. 4). This is an indication that there are other parts of the mind in which thoughts occur. According to Freud (1960), the state in which the ideas existed before being made conscious is called by us repression (p. 4). It is by the theory of repression that the apprehension of the unconscious is obtained. The unconscious is the largest part of the mind. All the things that are not easily available t... ...e or feelings of guilt or inferiority the superego will take on the role of the parents. It is the super ego that inner restraints on upon lawlessness and disorderly, thus enabling a person to become a law abiding element of society. The ego struggle to keep the id happy. The ego meets with obstacles in the world. It occasionally with objects that actually assists it in attaining it goals. The ego keeps a record of the obstacles and aides. It also keeps a record of punishments and rewards administered out by the two must influential objects in the world of a child, its mom and dad. This record of things to avoid and strategies to take becomes the superego. As stated earlier the unproblematic function of the id is to satisfy its immediate instincts, drive and urges it superego that links the mind to society and reality. As Freud (1960) states superego is however, not simply a residue of the earliest choices of the id it also represents an dynamic reaction formation against those choices (p.24). The id, ego, and superego play a vital role in a persons development of their personality. If thy work together in harmony a person will grow up to be a be a healthy mentally person.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Death from a Buddhist and Christian Point of View :: essays research papers

Death from a Buddhist and Christian Point of ViewYou will be with me today in paradise, Jesus Christ told this to the thief on the cross while they were dying. However, terminate people desire that there is truly life by and by shoemakers last? In many different religions there are different perceptions of life after death. For example in the Buddhist religion, the Buddhist people hope that life is practice for death. Professor Brown, of California State University of Northridge stated, The Buddhist people cultivate positive, happy virtuous states of chief and abandoning non-virtuous, harmful, suffering states of mind. This teaching is mirrored by Christianity teachings as well. Professor Brown also stated, Death is an opportunity for great spiritual achievement if one is prepared and remembers ones spiritual practices and beliefs and understandings during the death process. From its inception, Buddhism has stressed the importance of death, since awareness of death is what pro mpted the Buddha to perceive the ultimate futility of worldly concerns and pleasures. Realizing that death is inevitable for a person who is caught up in worldly pleasures and attitudes, he resolved to renounce the world and devote himself to finding a solution to this most basic of existential dilemmas. Buddhism does not look at death as a continuation of the soul but as an awakening. Dying and being reborn has been compared by some Buddhist as a candle flame up. When the flame of one lit candle is touched to the wick of an unlighted candle, the light passes from one Valino 2candle to another. The actual flame of the first candle does not pass over but is responsible for lighting the second candle. When preparing for death Buddhist generally agree a persons state of mind while dying is of great importance. While dying the person can be surrounded by friends, family and monks who recite Buddhists scriptures and mantras to help the person achieve a peaceful state of mind. Buddhism a sserts that all being live beyond the various fluctuations of this life. Death is merely a passage to rebirth in another region such as the human world, a pure land or the flowering of the ultimate nature of the mind. So in all actuality, Buddhist believe that every day on earth, people should live with good positive feelings, positive thinking, positive attitude. As Buddhist people suggested, life is practice. One can not be happy in the after life unless one takes the advantage of their life on earth.

Giovanni & Lusanna-by Gene Brucker :: essays papers

Giovanni & Lusanna-by Gene BruckerIn the story Giovanni and Lusanna , written and researched by Gene Brucker, there is a woman who has taken her alleged husband to court, because he has married another woman. The story is a factual account of what transpired during this court case and the remainder of Giovannis life. There are several similarities between their world and ours, but for the most part we live in a totally different environment. Our standards of living project greatly improved, but more than that our society has grown more tolerant toward the people who deviate from e very(prenominal)day standards.The story starts out with Lusanna as a married woman who caught the eye of a wealthy young man named Giovanni. As time wore on they allegedly fell in roll in the hay and enjoyed all of the pleasures of their love. It was subsequently claimed by Lusanna that Giovanni had promised to marry her in the event of her husbands death. Her husband soon died a questionable death that left(a) open the possibility of poison. hostile todays world divorce was unheard of, and unacceptable. Giovanni then refused to marry her in a public wedding because his social status would be greatly hurt to marry some one in the working class of Florence. This is another example of why todays society is so lots different from how it was when they lived.Another strange thing about their society is the open humiliation that people were subjected to. It was said that Lusanna first husband was called a cuckold to his face. hatful who were said to earn money in a dirty fashion often had blood or paint thrown on their steps. These kinds of things are yet not normal or permitted in todays world. It is true that they do sometimes occur, but the responsible party often ends up look worse that the person they were trying to hurt. Lusanna was said to have had several lovers. She was not able to become pregnant due to medical problems. This pretty much left her free to have unprotecte d sex with as many lovers as she wanted. It is true that there are women today with this same type of free love attitude, but there are serious consequences in todays world that will greatly hamper such a life style. One thing that is very similar about their time and todays world in

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Personal Narrative- Destruction of Nature Essay -- Personal Narrative

Personal Narrative- Destruction of NatureIf you ever get a chance to visit Chaco Canyon National Monument in forward-looking Mexico, you should take the time to just stand in the desert and listen. The allay in this place is physical you can feel it surround you. This is a silence with depth and layers that are unbroken even by the wind, which moves through emptiness and speaks only in occasional sighs through the canyons. The air itself is very clearthe want of humidity gives the cliffs and buttes sharp lines, and the colors of the earth, though muted, stand in stark relief to the blueness of the sky. Night comes gradually to this place. The height and dryness of the air allows the stars to wait before the lie has setcreating an odd contrast of light and darkness in which night is falling on one horizon while the sun reddens the other. Standing on the cliff tops you can see the sky deepen from blue to black. At night the only lights come from the stars and moon, and the faint topographic point of light that is the city of Albuquerque, fifty miles away. This small blemish on the horizon haunts my memory in some ways, like an eyelash in the eye, because I bed that twenty years ago the night was perfectly dark. In his book Cosmos, Carl Sagan quotes two amateur astronomers as saying, We have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night. But my question is, if we do not fear the darkness, why do we constantly seek to keep it at bay with our streetlights and floodlamps? Emerson declares that if man would be alone, let him look at the stars. With the defeat of the night, we have also blocked out the stars. Do we fear isolation? Or is it the undeniable presence of indocile forces or of decay that is present and necessary to na... ... presence, and darkness is always present. We have created an isolation that leads us to fear the world that created us. Are we swearless? I hope not, because the intellect and creativity and ingenuity of the human mind are beautiful things. I am not saying we should chuck it all and go prat to nature. The natural world is a harsh, brutal and impartial place, and we as sentient beings could not fit in. Rather, I argue that development and progress should be holistic, an progression of the mind and soul as well as the body. Thoreau once said that in wilderness can be found the salvation of the world. It forces us to treat outside of ourselves and seek a social consciousness that extends beyond individual rights to human rights, and a greater reconciliation with the world around us. Perhaps then(prenominal) we can accept the darkness, because we will no longer fear the night.

Personal Narrative- Destruction of Nature Essay -- Personal Narrative

Personal Narrative- Destruction of NatureIf you ever get a chance to visit Chaco Canyon National depositary in New Mexico, you should take the time to just stand in the desert and listen. The silence in this place is physical you can feel it c whole up you. This is a silence with depth and layers that are unbroken even by the wind, which moves through emptiness and speaks only in occasional sighs through the canyons. The air itself is precise clearthe lack of humidity gives the cliffs and buttes sharp lines, and the colors of the earth, though muted, stand in stark relief to the blueness of the sky. Night flows gradually to this place. The height and gravity of the air allows the stars to appear before the sun has setcreating an odd contrast of light and darkness in which night is falling on one position while the sun reddens the other. Standing on the cliff tops you can see the sky deepen from blue to black. At night the only lights come from the stars and moon, and the faint smear of light that is the city of Albuquerque, fifty miles away. This small blemish on the horizon haunts my memory in some ways, like an eyelash in the eye, because I know that twenty years ago the night was perfectly dark. In his book Cosmos, Carl Sagan quotes two amateur astronomers as saying, We have loved the stars also fondly to be fearful of the night. But my question is, if we do not fear the darkness, why do we constantly seek to keep it at talk with our streetlights and floodlamps? Emerson declares that if man would be alone, let him look at the stars. With the defeat of the night, we have also blocked out the stars. Do we fear isolation? Or is it the positive presence of uncontrollable forces or of decay that is present and necessary to na... ... presence, and darkness is always present. We have created an isolation that leads us to fear the world that created us. Are we helpless? I hope not, because the intellect and creativity and ingenuity of the human mind are b eautiful things. I am not saying we should chuck it all and go back to nature. The natural world is a harsh, brutal and impartial place, and we as sentient beings could not fit in. Rather, I argue that development and age should be holistic, an improvement of the mind and soul as well as the body. Thoreau once said that in wilderness can be found the redemption of the world. It forces us to turn outside of ourselves and seek a social consciousness that extends beyond individual rights to human rights, and a greater reconciliation with the world some us. Perhaps then we can accept the darkness, because we will no longer fear the night.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Paracetamol and Rheumatic Pain Management

Journal Article Critique HCA 220 Kayla Dye 3/3/2013 Wanda Carter This article explains what pains the elderly let from. Musculoskeletal pain in mentioned to be the most common. It mentions the ca social functions being rheumatic pain, different types of arthritis, and non curable conditions such as tendonitis and bursitis. It states that pain management backside either be treated with pharmaceuticals or non pharmaceuticals. Education of the patient of treatment is important in order to maintain good health with non pharmaceuticals.With pharmaceuticals ar in any case offered but are mentioned to be cost-effective and since they contain NSAIDs there is less risk for harmful effects with effective relief of symptoms. Any of the pharmaceuticals that the elderly use should be used with caution because of sensitivity and drug interactions. This requires attention and adjustments of dosages to avoid risk and be beneficial at the same term. This article states there are four broad cat egories of treatment which include analgesics, NSAIDs, even stronger analgesics, and adjuvant drugs.With all these drugs they should be maintained efficiently throughout the period of treatment and physicians should be certain of the effects. The goals that are discussed with patients and physicians should be realistic for the pain management to be effective. They are ways to help side effects of rheumatic pain such as helping sleep disturbance, fatigue, and mood disorders. For any of this to be effective educational efforts must still be involved with the patient and healthcare professional perspectives. An spotless diagnosis for rheumatic pain management will help if the patients are realistic as this article states.These treatments should be multimodal, but pay attention to the health of the patient. The best outcome would be to have a great impact on the pain and improve their lives and with the wider range of options of treatment that can make it doable and help physicians w ith musculoskeletal aches and pains that occur in the elderly. Some implications that healthcare professionals could have are that pain characteristics, disability levels, and psychological factors such as economic crisis and anxiety could affect the prognosis of musculoskeletal pain.Variables that are associated with poor outcomes for musculoskeletal pain could include the return of pain and complaints within a short time period, lack of education, use of pain medication, and even more bothersome pain occurring. There are important implications of expanded testing and treatment for musculoskeletal pain. presentation has often outpaced clinical science, leaving uncertainty about the efficacy and safety of many common treatments. Complications and even deaths related to pain management are increasing. condescension uncertainties, manufacturers aggressively promote new drugs and devices.However, trust in the science supporting these products is eroded by revelations of misleading a dvertising, allegations of kickbacks to physicians,and major investments by surgeons in the products they are investigating. buster Level Material Medical Terminology Breakdown Break down 10 medical words from your chosen article. Place the component parts in the correct boxes. Copy and paste this template into your Week Eight paper. Medical Word Prefix Combining form Suffix Definition 1 rheumatic Rheumat/o Rheumat/o-ic ic Watery flow. 2 osteoarthritis Osteo/o Osteo/o-arthr/o-itis itis A form of arthritis, occurring mainly in older persons, that is characterized by degenerative degeneration of the gristle of the joints. 3 arthritis Arthr/o Anthr/o-itis itis Inflammation of a joint. 4 tendinitis Tendin/o Tendin/o-itis itis Inflammation of a tendon. 5 bursitis Burs/o Burs/o-itis itis Inflammation of a bursa. 6 acetaminophen A/o a-ceto/o-mino/o-pheno/o-en en Analgesic drug used as an alternative to aspirin. 7 analgesic Ana/o Ana/o-ges-ic ic Pain killer 8 musculo-skeletal Muscul o/o Musculo/o- skelet/o-al al Pertaining to or comprising the skeleton and muscles. 9 pharmacological Pharmac/o Pharmac/o-log/o-ic-al al The science of drugs, including their composition, uses, and effects. 10 intra-articular Intra Intra/-articul/o-ar ar Within a joint. References Fitzcharles, M. -A. , Lussier, D. , & Shir, Y. (2010). Management of chronic arthritis pain in the elderly. Drugs & Aging,27(6), 471.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Cultural Diversity and Patient Care

Knowledge of cultural regeneration is key to all levels of the nursing practice. Knowledge and skills related to cultural diversity can strengthen and broaden health care delivery systems. In 1986 the American Nursing Association (ANA) issued its outgrowth intention to strengthen cultural diversity programs in nursing (Lowe & Archibald, 2009, p. 11). Despite good intentions made by nursing, progress in the area of cultural diversity has been slow and sporadic.The change in the ethnic composition of the U.S. has challenged encourages to incorporate the needs of their patient into their daily nursing practice. Society expects todays nurse to be culturally competent. forward a focus was on transcultural nursing was to bring an understanding of the contrasts between the nurses own culture and of the patient. An early strategy to discipline nurses about culture was to incorporate cultural education into the nursing curriculum and to have cultural questions on nursing boards and cert ification testing.The necessity in preparing and assisting nurse researchers and clinicians to be able to meet the health needs of culturally diverse population takes on a sense of urgency (Lowe & Archibald, 2009, p. 15). Concepts of illness, health, and wellness are ramify of the total cultural belief system. Nurses need to understand how cultural groups understand life process, how they define health and illness, what they do to maintain wellness, what they believe is the cause of illness, how healers regain and care for their members, and how the cultural background of the nurse influences the care that they provide.We read in Ephesians 432, And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christs sake hath forgiven you (Holy Bible, King James Version). As Christians we should show Gods love to each and every one of our patients. This article titled heathen Diversity The Intention of Nursing can be found at http//onlinelibrary. wiley. com/do i/10. 1111/j. 1744-6198. 2009. 00122. x/abstracte .

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Shakespeare – Romeo and Juliet Act 3 Scene 1 Analysis

Romeo and Juliet Coursework In Act 3 Scene 1 of Romeo & Juliet, Shakespeargon raises the hullabaloo and the tautness throughout the scene by using salient tension between the characters, provocative and threatening dialogue, strong language effects, and sharp vital violence. The scene begins with Benvolio and Mercutio approach on to stage, with Benvolio suggesting they should go home in case they meet the Capulets and the violence ensues. The day is hot, the Capels are abroad, And if we meet we shall non scape a brawl, for immediately, these hot days, is the harebrained blood stirring. This pathetic fallacy and strong image of mad blood creates an hope in the sense of hearing of violent events to come. This expectation seems to be met fulfilled apace as Tybalt enters with other members of the Capulet family and some servants and immediately a dramatic tension is established between the two factions. We are shown that Mercutio is in a difficult strain of mind. By my head h ere comes the Capulets By my heel, I care not. Clearly Mercutio is in an aggressive mood. Tybalt addresses Mercutio and Benvolio. Gentlemen, good den, a word with one of you Up to this point, Tybalt is cultured his quarrel is with Romeo, not with Benvolio or Mercutio. However Mercutio is extremely provocatice and he responds to Tybalt, asking a word with one of them with, Make it a word and a blow. The audience feels there is a crusade in prospect. When Tybalt says that Mercutio consorts with Romeo, Mercutio sees an insult where there is none. Consort? what, dost thou make us minstrels? an thou make minstrels of us, look to hear nonentity but discords heres my fiddlestick heres that shall make you dance. Zounds, consort A gentleman cannot accept being compared to a lowly musician, but this is not what Tybalt meant and the audience feel expectation of fear and violence. Now Romeo enters, and now the focus of the tension shifts as a dramatic tension is established between Rom eo and Tybalt. Tybalt says to Mercutio Well, peace be with you sir, here comes my man. It is unknown that Tybalt is prepared to swallow such provocation from Mercutio, just as Romeo will soon swallow his.Tybalt puts Romeo in a situation in which almost no gentleman could refuse to fight. Thou art a villain. he says but Romeo does not respond with aggression. Now a new element of intrigue and excitement comes with a kind of dramatic irony. The audience knows why Romeo does not want to fight Tybalt they live with just become relatives- but the other characters do not know. Romeo seems quite unmanly when instead of fighting Tybalt for his honour he swallows the insult, saying I do protest I never injuried thee, But loved thee break down than thou canst devise. Again the audience knows, can devise, the reason, but Mercutio sees it as cowardice. Now the excitement moves up a notch as Mercutio starts the violence and we are to view as the sword fight the audience has been expecting. Mercutio condemns Romeos peaceful ways. O calm, dishonourable, vile submission Alla stoccata carries it away. (Draws) Tybalt, you rat-catcher, will you walk? The vile submission shows what a degradation Mercutio believes Romeo is accepting the insult rat catcher makes it almost certain Tybalt will have to fight.Now the sword play begins, and the audience not only have the excitement and great dramatic action of two fighters trying to kill each other but also the sight of Romeo trying to stop the fight for the reasons only he and the audience know. With a tragic irony it is Romeos efforts to separate the two men that give Tybalt the chance to stab Mercutio, a star of Romeos on the Montagues side. Now the audience has put in suspense wondering whether Mercutio is going to die or not. Romeo raises their hopes that he may live. ( courage man, the hurt cannot be much. ) but Mercutio seems to know that he is a dead man. A plague o both your houses They have made worms meat of me I hav e it, And soundly too your houses The dramatic and terrifying image of worms meat makes Mercutios last words very powerful and his cursing of the Capulets and the Montagues shows that he blames their useless feud for his death. The scene now takes another turn as Romeo puts aside all thought of peace, and becomes warlike. Benvolio tells him that Mercutio is dead, and Romeo decides on revenge in spite of his sum to Juliet. This days black fate on more days doth depend This but begins the woe, others must end The audience is put on more suspense with this forecast of more strife and death. Tybalt returns, perhaps to continue his quarrel with Romeo but strangely this time, alone and Romeo resolves on violence. Away to heaven, respective lenity, And fire-eyed fury be my conduct now With the passion of this language and the dramatic tension once again onstage between Romeo and Tybalt, the scene approaches its climax.Tybalt declares that he will send Romeos soul subsequently Mercutio s. Thou, wretched boy, that didst consort him here, Shalt with him hence. The audience understand that either Tybalt or Romeo must die. Now we have the second sword fight in this scene and this is the climax. As Romeo kills Tybalt he takes his revenge for Mercutios death, he gets rid of his main enemy in the Capulet camp, and he puts his relationship with the love of his life in grave insecurity this is the peak of the excitement and tension.Now Shakespeare lets the audience relax a little as Benvolio explains what has happened and the Prince orders Romeo exile but not death. From foreboding at the very outset of the scene to mortal insults and provocation, to sword fighting and death, to the audiences realization that something terribly wrong has happened to Romeo and Juliets romance Shakespeare uses a wide range of dramatic and language devices to make the scene one of the exciting and enormous tension.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Skills of a Project Manager

13_26_ch02. fm knave 13 Friday, phratry 8, 2000 243 PM Chapter 2 radical aptitudes for pouch shell outrs Be not afraid of importance some atomic number 18 born grand some achieve greatness differents adjudge greatness thrust upon them. William Shakespeare Twelfth Night Introduction Before now, we had discussed extending class focus in the b mellowroad sense, that is, from the place that whatsoever type of strayindustrial concourse line, new construction, or engineering intelligence implementation operated by the same sets of rules and care fores. For the remainder of this book, we focus on the fail type of intention and its leaderthe IT fancy double-decker. examine buss are a very special breed of commonwealth. They are in much demand and allow be increasingly so as the affect for telling technologists continues to soar. Good engineering take to coachs are trained, not born. They forge skills through experience and education. They become amend pr oject causers each snip they successfully bring through a project. They learn new techniques and apply them on their projects. They learn lessonssometimes the hard wayto be better managers in the future. 13 13_26_ch02. fm paginate 14 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM What Does a count on Manager Do?Briefly, engine room project managers fulfill the spare-time activity broad getments G G G G G G G G Define and review the chore case and requirements by regular reviews and get words to ensure that the guest receives the system that he or she indigences and carrys. Initiate and plan the project by establishing its format, direction, and base lines that allow for any variance measurements and change experience. Partner with the end users, bat with project sponsors and other wariness to establish progress and direction of the project by achieving terminals, foundering tar deceases, figure out problems, mitigating risks.Manage the engineering science, passel, and change in value to achieve goals, reach targets, and deliver the project on time and indoors budget. Manage the project staff by creating an environs conducive to the delivery of the new application in the most cost-effective manner. Be able to manage uncertainty, rapid change, ambiguity, surprises, and a less defined environment. Manage the client relationship by using an decorous direct yet complete and formal reporting format that compliments a respected and deep relationship. Drive the project by leading by example, and motivating allconcerned until the project accomplishes its goal.Now let us examine the skills and qualities motiveed to visualise these requirements. Necessary Skills The skills that a salutary project manager possesses are umteen and varied, diligence the entire spectrum of the human personalisedity. We place divide these skills into a number of specific categories, namely 14 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for visualize Managers 13_26_ch02. fm scallywag 15 Frida y, September 8, 2000 243 PM Personal Skills witness Managers mustiness be able to incite and sustain people. date aggroup members will nerve to the project manager to solve problems and help with removing obstacles.Project managers must be able to address and solve problems within the team, as well as those that authorise right(prenominal) the team. There are numerous ways, both subtle and direct, in which project managers can help team members. Some examples include the following G G G G G G Manage by example (MBE). Team members will be closely watching all accomplishments of the project manager. Therefore, project managers must be honest, direct, straightforward, and fellowshipable in all dealings with people and with the project. A good manager knows how to fiddle hard and concord fun, and this approach becomes contagious.A decreed attitude. Project managers must always have a positive attitude, compensate when there are meaty difficulties, problems, or project obs tacles. Negative attitudes erode confidence, and a downward spiral will follow. Define expectations. Managers who manage must clearly define what is expected of team members. It is important to do this in writingget agreement from the individual team members. This leaves no room for problems later, when someone states Its not my job. consummation expectations must be defined at the start of the project.Be considerate. Project guidance is a demanding job with a need for multiple skills at many levels. Above all, be considerate and respectful, and give people and team members the time and consideration they deserve. Make people aware that their efforts are appreciated and the work that they do is important, because it is. A letter, personal word, or e-mail of appreciation goes a keen-sighted way. Be direct. Project managers are respected if they are direct, open, and deal with all types of problems. Never conceal problems or avoid addressing them.If a problem is bigger than the pr oject manager or the team can deal with, escalate it to senior management. Never make cargos that cannot be delivered. Finally, a favorite and personal rule of the causation Underpromise, then over-deliver. 15 Necessary Skills 13_26_ch02. fm Page 16 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Technical Skills There are two schools of impression about the level needed for expert foul skills. Some project managers prefer to have little expert acquaintance about the projects they manage, preferring to leave the adept management to other junior managers, such as platformming managers or network managers.Others have detailed practiced skills of computer languages, software product, and networks. There is no hard and prompt rule. It really depends on the type and size of projects, their structure, resources available, and the project environment. Questions that project managers should charter include the following 1. What types of skillful problems require management? 2. Who will solve them? 3. Is it do with quality and satisfaction? 4. Who can I rely on in my project team? 5. What outside resources, if any, can I draw on for economic aid?As with all employees, project managers should have the technical knowledge and skills needed to do their jobs. If managers escape these skills, fostering is one option being learned or coached by a more experienced individual is another. Senior management should ask the question, Do your project managers need more technical skills than they already possess? On thumpingr complex projects, such as systems integration projects or multiple-year projects, there are frequently besides many complex technologies for the project manager to master.Technical prepare that provides breadth may be useful. On smaller projects, the project manager may also be a key technical contri scarcelyor. In this case, technical teaching may enhance the abilities of project managers to contribute technically, but it is unlikely to improve their ma nagement skills. iodine thing is abundantly clearthe project manager is ultimately responsible for the entire management of the project, technical or otherwise, and will require solutions to the technical issues that will occur. 16 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 3_26_ch02. fm Page 17 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM worry Skills Project managers need other key skills besides those that are purely technical to lead and deliver on their projects successfully. A good project manager needs to understand many facets of the business aspect of running a project, so critical skills touch on expertise in the areas of brass, communication, finance, and human resources. The following are examples of the management topics utilise in develop effective project managers G G G G G G G G G G G G G G GProject planning, initiation, and establishment Recruiting people and keeping them Effective project negotiation Software tools for project management Accurate estimating and cost con trol Project execution and control Developing justly project presentations and reports Personal and project leadership Managing risk and making decisions Effective problem management Performance management Managing the projects within the organization Project management professed(prenominal) (PMP) exam review Growing and sustaining a high-performance team Managing change within an organizationThis stick out skill cannot be over-emphasized. Although we worry about whether the technology selected is the correct one for the organization and will lead to success, projects do not generally fail because of lack of adequate technology. Statistically, most projects fail because the soft science portions of the project have not received enough attentionthe human factor has not been adequately addressed. Change, whether for good or for bad, is stressful on an organization and its personnel. The ability to manage this change is one area in which any good project manager would do well to hon e skills.Necessary Skills 17 13_26_ch02. fm Page 18 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Coping Skills A good project manager has to acquire a number of skills to issue with different situations, conflicts, uncertainty, and doubt. This means G G G G G cosmos flexible Being persistent and firm when necessary Being creative, even when the project does not call for it Absorbing large volumes of data from multiple sources Being patient but able to differentiate amid patience and action Being able to handle large amounts of continuous, often unrelenting stressG Additionally, good project managers have high tolerance for surprises, uncertainty, and ambiguity. Projects rarely progress the way that they are defined, and managers need to manage the uncertainty that comes with that. Manage One Projector Many? There is no simple answer to this question some managers are able to juggle multiple projects and disparate deadlines successfully, and others are not. In these days of multiple projects that have to be delivered quickly, it is very possible that management will require managing multiple projects.However, this brings a risk. Will project managers be stretched too thin? Again, there is no single, tried answer. Project managers and senior management need to ask themselves some basic questions G G How much support will be provided? How many people are on the project? Are they odd-job(prenominal) or fulltime? What are the management challenges? An adequately budgeted project may require less effort to manage than one that is extremely thin. Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers G 18 13_26_ch02. fm Page 19 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G G GAre all the projects in the same animal(prenominal) location or will the project manager spend a lot of time traveling? Do all the projects involve the same technology? The same business cultures? The same set of stakeholders? How many of the projects have important deadlines that are close together? The answers to thes e questions will aid in determining whether multiple projects can share a management resource. The more complex the projects from the standpoints of staffing, budgeting, and technology, the more likely it is that they will need a dedicated resource to manage them adequately.Project Management Skills Development One of the surest ways to align strategies and work draw out competencies with go-ahead spate is to create a road map from vision to execution. A skills management process starts in the future and works its way back to the present. An IT skills management process, for example, links the endeavour vision to a technology forecast. The technology forecasts to needful skills, the require skills to the IT skills inventory, the skills inventory to the IT staffs competence levels, and the competence levels to gaps and to the time frame during which those gaps need to be filled.Leadership, team building, marketing, business savvy, project management, manufacturing know-how, fun ctional expertise, and institutional knowledge all are part of the skills picture. Skills management serves as an order for managing the work force ( understand Figure 21). It lays out a road map for skills development, work role definition, career tracks, resource management, staffing tryst, workload balancing, and learning. With a road map, all members of the work force can fit their strengths, weaknesses, and alternatives into the enterprises plans.Skills management is bonny a lifeline in a turbulent IT labor market. Midsize and large enterprises, businesses in the private and earthly concern sectors, aggressive and conservative companiesall are tone at skills management with renewed interest. Many enterprises now recognize that the combined lack of enterprise planning, imagination, and Project Management Skills Development 19 13_26_ch02. fm Page 20 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Enterprise Objective Forecast Where does the enterprise want to be in 36 months? What informati on, technologies and skills will it need to get there?What skills are in-house (e. g. , technical, business, leadership and project management)? What skills will it need in 12 months? 24 months? 36 months? How valuable will straight offs skills be in 12 months? 24 months? 36 months? How proficient are the IS staff members in the realized and the needed skills? What education and didactics will the enterprise offer, to whom and how will it provide this? What sources of IT skills internal and external can we use to fill the gaps? Skill Inventory Skill Definition Strategic Skill Valuation technique LevelsLearning Portfolio Sourcing Figure 21 Skills ManagementA Road Map for the Work Force (Source Gartner Group, Inc. ). anticipation are as much to blame for todays labor crunch as is the shortage of relevant IT skills. In that climate, skills management can be a powerful tool for bringing discipline, rationale, and cross-pollination to an underused process. all the same more entici ng, many IT professionals, under the mantle of career entrepreneurism, will throw in their lot with enterprises that have clearly committed to and funded skills management programs.Having a road map with which to guide career development is more meaningful than wandering until serendipity strikes. Three years ago, when large organizations first began covering the area of skills management, it was a process dumb for the most progressive enterprises. By methodically and meticulously forecasting, classifying, analyzing, and taking inventory of skills, progressive enterprises could signalize the urgency and volume of skills gaps, create pore learn programs, and add some rational thinking to their sourcing strategies.Skills management continues to satisfy those needs, even fos20 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 13_26_ch02. fm Page 21 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM tering a niche market of consultants and software developers that are eager to bring order to IT Human Res ource management. Before moving on, it is honest to make sure that everybody is speaking the same language. In the Gartner Groups definition of perspective, skills management is a robust and systematic approach to forecasting, identifying, cataloguing, evaluating, and analyzing the work force skills, competencies and gaps that enterprises face.Although many programs and initiatives adopt the label skills management, most of them focus on skills inventory and fall short in analysis and forecasting. A well-designed skills management process injects a stronger dose of discipline, coordination, and planning into work force planning, strategic planning, professional dressing and development programs, resource allocation maneuvering, and risk analysis and assessment. Enterprises can reap several(prenominal) lessons from skills management. Skills management works if it G G G G GG Defines skills for roles Forces forward thinking Forces some financial backing of what makes an IT professio nal especially proficient Strengthens the organization Leads to focused training, risk assessment, sourcing strategy, and resource allocation via gap realisation Attracts high-level endorsement Does not define work roles Lacks plans or incentive for refreshment Communicates its purpose sickly Provides differing language and terminology Force-fits skills and work roles to policies, rather than driving new frameworksSkills management does not work if it G G G G G Project Management Skills Development 21 13_26_ch02. fm Page 22 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Skills Management Case Study A northward American manufacturing federation set a goal to boost revenue by $300 one thousand million within three years. Key to the growth was a new way of dealing with information and IT. First, hoarding of information by divisions had to give way to enterprise ownership of information.Second, ubiquitous access to information required a managed and enterprise-wide migration to standards, interop erability, common platforms, and client/server technology. Finally, the vision of ubiquitous access depended on substantially upgrading the IT organizations skill base, supplementing and supplanting mainframe skills with skills associated with distributed affect and client/server application development.The play along embarked on an ambitious initiative designed to cultivate the technical skills and business understanding of the IT professionals. The initiativenotably, company-wide skill identification and continuous trainingwill help the company to raise its skills level and will give IT employees control of their professional development. Elements of the IT professional development initiative include GIdentifying eight areas of IT professional skills, technical skills being only one area (a detailed discussion on the eight areas identified follows this list) Assigning company determine to skills for the near term, short term, and long term Evaluating employee competence levels within the eight areas of IT professional skills Providing continuous training in critical skills, both technical and non-technical Establishing an IT mentor program Supervisors providing performance planning and coaching Establishing team and peer feedback Flattening the IT organization from 18 to 5 titles Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project ManagersG G G G G G G 22 13_26_ch02. fm Page 23 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G Mapping skills and performance think of to salary zones within the flatter organization With the help of outside experts, IT executives identified more than 125 skills in eight areas of IT professional development. The eight areas of focus for IT professional development and a sampling of associated skills include GCustomer focusemployee possesses knowledge of customers business needs and expectations delivers constructive qualitative feedback to customers, meets deadlines, and works with customers to set requirements and schedules Technical skillsemployee posse sses skills related to programming, computer-aided software engineering, desktop client services, enterprise infrastructure applications, technical software, and hardware support Product or technology evaluation and expertiseemployee analyzes and compares products, makes sound recommendations within the company architecture, understands and recognizes limitations of technologies, can communicate the fundamentals of technology to others, and uses technical team resources to resolve or avoid technology-based problems moving in and application expertiseemployee possesses knowledge of business-specific applications, knows companys business and local operations, knows the broad application environments (e. g. order entry and accounting), and understands general concepts of business management Project managementemployee handles projects of certain size and complexity, estimates project cost and schedules with a degree of accuracy, executes project to plan, manages multiple projects at on ce, builds teams and organizes team resources, and knows project management tools Interpersonal skillsemployee performs as team member or team leader, contributes knowledge to the team and to the organization, and communicates effectively Administrative skills employee has understanding of budgeting, interviewing, economics of the business, and salary and review process 23 G G G G G G Project Management Skills Development 13_26_ch02. fm Page 24 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G Soft skillsemployee displays leadership, forward thinking, initiative, drive for education, and cargo to organizational structure and development.Each skill receives a weightinging factor based on its strategic deduction to the company during the adjacent 12 months, the neighboring 12 to 24 months, and the next 24 to 60 months. A skill considered critical to the company earns a weight of 6 a skill with no value to the company earns a weight of 0. After the company skills are identified and their weights delegate, employee skills are crosschecked against the company skills and assigned a score based on the employees competence level. Employee competence levels range from 6 to 1, that is, from mastery to basic understanding. (A competence score of zero is reserved for skills that are either not applicable or not possessed by the employee. Employees then compare their competence scores with those they receive from their peers, team leaders, and supervisors. To see the scoring mechanism in action, assume that the company assigns COBOL programming skills a weight of 4 for the next 12 months and a weight of 3 for the following 12 to 24 months. At the same time, an IT employee earns a score of 3 for average skills in COBOL programming. Given the framework, the value of those skills to the employee will be 12 during the next 12 months, but the value will twilight to 9 during the next 12 to 24 months. Continuous training is considered essential to the programs success. Here, the IT executi ves are seeking to develop an implicit promise between the company and the employees.The company promises to provide the resources and opportunities for trainingtime, funding, and identification and valuation of strategic skills if the employees promise to use the training to bridge gaps in the company skills base and in their own skill levels. Armed with the company skills inventory and personal competence scores, employees who take the appropriate training will see their value to the company rise. Employees who exact to forgo appropriate training will see their value diminish. On the plus side, the skills and training program has forced the company to view the IT organization in terms of skills and long-term corporate objectives, not simply in terms of head count.Moreover, employees have responded positively to a program that puts professional development in their hands. On the negative side, skills identification and buy-in from IT managers take so long that the initiative risks losing momentum. 24 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 13_26_ch02. fm Page 25 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Keys to a Successful Skills Management Endeavor Three areas must be worked out for a skills management initiative to be successful 1. Employees have to adopt the program as their own, rather than as a management dictate, including the employees anticipate control of their own professional development 2. Supervisors have to surrender some control over employee development 3.Executives must ensure that employees use metrics as a tool for professional development, not as a weapon in cutthroat competition As enterprises turn to technology to reach the next level of corporate performance, IT organizations should identify the skills they need to meet the corporate objectives. Through a program of skills identification, IT organizations can see the holes in their coverage, set priorities for projects, define which training is required, and determine which skills may ne ed third-party coverage. A commitment to funding for training is essential. Conclusions Rarely has a professional field evolved as rapidly as project management. It is totally different from what it was even 10 years ago.The struggle to stay abreast of new and rapidly evolving technologies, to deal with accumulated development and maintenance backlogs, and to have intercourse with people issues has become a treadmill lean as software groups work hard just to stay in place. A key goal of disciplined project managers is to avoid the surprises that can occur when these surprises almost always lead to bad news canceled projects, late delivery, cost overruns, dissatisfied customers, outsourcing, termination, and unemployment. Indeed, we need to develop management by surprise (MBS) as a project management technique Keys to a Successful Skills Management Endeavor 25 13_26_ch02. fm Page 26 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM As we have discussed in this chapter, project managers are a specia l breed of people.The skills that they develop are a cross between a diplomat, concert dance dancer, and a Marine Corps drill sergeantall while having the patience of Job. These skills will serve them well for future higher-level positions as Vice Presidents, oldtimer Information Officers (CIOs), and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the corporations for which they work. The culture of an organization is a critical success factor in its efforts to survive, improve, and flourish. A culture based on a commitment to project management and delivering quality projects and effective management differentiates a team that practices excellent project management from a flock of individual programmers doing their better to ship code. Projects rarely failbut people do. 26 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project ManagersSkills of a Project Manager13_26_ch02. fm Page 13 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers Be not afraid of greatness some are born great some achieve greatnessothers have greatness thrust upon them. William Shakespeare Twelfth Night Introduction Before now, we had discussed project management in the broad sense, that is, from the perspective that any type of projectindustrial assembly line, new construction, or technology implementation operated by the same sets of rules and processes. For the remainder of this book, we focus on the last type of project and its leaderthe IT project manager.Project managers are a very special breed of people. They are in much demand and will be increasingly so as the need for effective technologists continues to soar. Good technology project managers are trained, not born. They develop skills through experience and education. They become better project managers each time they successfully deliver a project. They learn new techniques and apply them on their projects. They learn lessonssometimes the hard wayto be better managers in the future. 13 13_26_ch02. fm Page 14 Friday, September 8, 2 000 243 PM What Does a Project Manager Do?Briefly, technology project managers fulfill the following broad requirements G G G G G G G G Define and review the business case and requirements by regular reviews and controls to ensure that the client receives the system that he or she wants and needs. Initiate and plan the project by establishing its format, direction, and base lines that allow for any variance measurements and change control. Partner with the end users, work with project sponsors and other management to establish progress and direction of the project by achieving goals, reaching targets, solving problems, mitigating risks.Manage the technology, people, and change in order to achieve goals, reach targets, and deliver the project on time and within budget. Manage the project staff by creating an environment conducive to the delivery of the new application in the most cost-effective manner. Be able to manage uncertainty, rapid change, ambiguity, surprises, and a less defi ned environment. Manage the client relationship by using an adequate direct yet complete and formal reporting format that compliments a respected and productive relationship. Drive the project by leading by example, and motivating allconcerned until the project accomplishes its goal.Now let us examine the skills and qualities needed to meet these requirements. Necessary Skills The skills that a good project manager possesses are many and varied, covering the entire spectrum of the human personality. We can divide these skills into a number of specific categories, namely 14 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 13_26_ch02. fm Page 15 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Personal Skills Project Managers must be able to motivate and sustain people. Project team members will look to the project manager to solve problems and help with removing obstacles.Project managers must be able to address and solve problems within the team, as well as those that occur outside the team. There are numerous ways, both subtle and direct, in which project managers can help team members. Some examples include the following G G G G G G Manage by example (MBE). Team members will be closely watching all actions of the project manager. Therefore, project managers must be honest, direct, straightforward, and knowledgeable in all dealings with people and with the project. A good manager knows how to work hard and have fun, and this approach becomes contagious.A positive attitude. Project managers must always have a positive attitude, even when there are substantial difficulties, problems, or project obstacles. Negative attitudes erode confidence, and a downward spiral will follow. Define expectations. Managers who manage must clearly define what is expected of team members. It is important to do this in writingget agreement from the individual team members. This leaves no room for problems later, when someone states Its not my job. Performance expectations must be defined at the start of the project.Be considerate. Project management is a demanding job with a need for multiple skills at many levels. Above all, be considerate and respectful, and give people and team members the time and consideration they deserve. Make people aware that their efforts are appreciated and the work that they do is important, because it is. A letter, personal word, or e-mail of appreciation goes a long way. Be direct. Project managers are respected if they are direct, open, and deal with all types of problems. Never conceal problems or avoid addressing them.If a problem is bigger than the project manager or the team can deal with, escalate it to senior management. Never make commitments that cannot be delivered. Finally, a favorite and personal rule of the author Underpromise, then over-deliver. 15 Necessary Skills 13_26_ch02. fm Page 16 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Technical Skills There are two schools of thought about the level needed for technical skills. Some project manage rs prefer to have little technical knowledge about the projects they manage, preferring to leave the technical management to other junior managers, such as programming managers or network managers.Others have detailed technical skills of computer languages, software, and networks. There is no hard and fast rule. It really depends on the type and size of projects, their structure, resources available, and the project environment. Questions that project managers should ask include the following 1. What types of technical problems require management? 2. Who will solve them? 3. Is it done with quality and satisfaction? 4. Who can I rely on in my project team? 5. What outside resources, if any, can I draw on for assistance?As with all employees, project managers should have the technical knowledge and skills needed to do their jobs. If managers lack these skills, training is one option being mentored or coached by a more experienced individual is another. Senior management should ask the question, Do your project managers need more technical skills than they already possess? On larger complex projects, such as systems integration projects or multiple-year projects, there are frequently too many complex technologies for the project manager to master.Technical training that provides breadth may be useful. On smaller projects, the project manager may also be a key technical contributor. In this case, technical training may enhance the abilities of project managers to contribute technically, but it is unlikely to improve their management skills. One thing is abundantly clearthe project manager is ultimately responsible for the entire management of the project, technical or otherwise, and will require solutions to the technical issues that will occur. 16 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 3_26_ch02. fm Page 17 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Management Skills Project managers need other key skills besides those that are purely technical to lead and deliver on their projects successfully. A good project manager needs to understand many facets of the business aspect of running a project, so critical skills touch on expertise in the areas of organization, communication, finance, and human resources. The following are examples of the management topics used in training effective project managers G G G G G G G G G G G G G G GProject planning, initiation, and organization Recruiting people and keeping them Effective project negotiation Software tools for project management Accurate estimating and cost control Project execution and control Developing powerful project presentations and reports Personal and project leadership Managing risk and making decisions Effective problem management Performance management Managing the projects within the organization Project management professional (PMP) exam review Growing and sustaining a high-performance team Managing change within an organizationThis last skill cannot be over-emphasized. Although we wor ry about whether the technology selected is the correct one for the organization and will lead to success, projects do not generally fail because of lack of adequate technology. Statistically, most projects fail because the soft science portions of the project have not received enough attentionthe human factor has not been adequately addressed. Change, whether for good or for bad, is stressful on an organization and its personnel. The ability to manage this change is one area in which any good project manager would do well to hone skills.Necessary Skills 17 13_26_ch02. fm Page 18 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Coping Skills A good project manager has to acquire a number of skills to cope with different situations, conflicts, uncertainty, and doubt. This means G G G G G Being flexible Being persistent and firm when necessary Being creative, even when the project does not call for it Absorbing large volumes of data from multiple sources Being patient but able to differentiate betwee n patience and action Being able to handle large amounts of continuous, often unrelenting stressG Additionally, good project managers have high tolerance for surprises, uncertainty, and ambiguity. Projects rarely progress the way that they are defined, and managers need to manage the uncertainty that comes with that. Manage One Projector Many? There is no simple answer to this question some managers are able to juggle multiple projects and disparate deadlines successfully, and others are not. In these days of multiple projects that have to be delivered quickly, it is very possible that management will require managing multiple projects.However, this brings a risk. Will project managers be stretched too thin? Again, there is no single, reliable answer. Project managers and senior management need to ask themselves some basic questions G G How much support will be provided? How many people are on the project? Are they part-time or fulltime? What are the management challenges? An adequa tely budgeted project may require less effort to manage than one that is extremely thin. Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers G 18 13_26_ch02. fm Page 19 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G G GAre all the projects in the same physical location or will the project manager spend a lot of time traveling? Do all the projects involve the same technology? The same business cultures? The same set of stakeholders? How many of the projects have important deadlines that are close together? The answers to these questions will aid in determining whether multiple projects can share a management resource. The more complex the projects from the standpoints of staffing, budgeting, and technology, the more likely it is that they will need a dedicated resource to manage them adequately.Project Management Skills Development One of the surest ways to align strategies and work force competencies with enterprise vision is to create a road map from vision to execution. A skills management process s tarts in the future and works its way back to the present. An IT skills management process, for example, links the enterprise vision to a technology forecast. The technology forecasts to required skills, the required skills to the IT skills inventory, the skills inventory to the IT staffs competence levels, and the competence levels to gaps and to the time frame during which those gaps need to be filled.Leadership, team building, marketing, business savvy, project management, manufacturing know-how, functional expertise, and institutional knowledge all are part of the skills picture. Skills management serves as an order for managing the work force (see Figure 21). It lays out a road map for skills development, work role definition, career tracks, resource management, staffing allocation, workload balancing, and learning. With a road map, all members of the work force can fit their strengths, weaknesses, and alternatives into the enterprises plans.Skills management is becoming a life line in a turbulent IT labor market. Midsize and large enterprises, businesses in the private and public sectors, aggressive and conservative companiesall are looking at skills management with renewed interest. Many enterprises now recognize that the combined lack of enterprise planning, imagination, and Project Management Skills Development 19 13_26_ch02. fm Page 20 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Enterprise Objective Forecast Where does the enterprise want to be in 36 months? What information, technologies and skills will it need to get there?What skills are in-house (e. g. , technical, business, leadership and project management)? What skills will it need in 12 months? 24 months? 36 months? How valuable will todays skills be in 12 months? 24 months? 36 months? How proficient are the IS staff members in the established and the needed skills? What education and training will the enterprise offer, to whom and how will it provide this? What sources of IT skills internal and externa l can we use to fill the gaps? Skill Inventory Skill Definition Strategic Skill Valuation Proficiency LevelsLearning Portfolio Sourcing Figure 21 Skills ManagementA Road Map for the Work Force (Source Gartner Group, Inc. ). foresight are as much to blame for todays labor crunch as is the shortage of relevant IT skills. In that climate, skills management can be a powerful tool for bringing discipline, rationale, and cross-pollination to an underused process. Even more enticing, many IT professionals, under the mantle of career entrepreneurism, will throw in their lot with enterprises that have clearly committed to and funded skills management programs.Having a road map with which to guide career development is more meaningful than wandering until serendipity strikes. Three years ago, when large organizations first began covering the area of skills management, it was a process reserved for the most progressive enterprises. By methodically and meticulously forecasting, classifying, an alyzing, and taking inventory of skills, progressive enterprises could identify the urgency and volume of skills gaps, create focused training programs, and add some rational thinking to their sourcing strategies.Skills management continues to satisfy those needs, even fos20 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 13_26_ch02. fm Page 21 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM tering a niche market of consultants and software developers that are eager to bring order to IT Human Resource management. Before moving on, it is beneficial to make sure that everybody is speaking the same language. In the Gartner Groups definition of perspective, skills management is a robust and systematic approach to forecasting, identifying, cataloguing, evaluating, and analyzing the work force skills, competencies and gaps that enterprises face.Although many programs and initiatives adopt the label skills management, most of them focus on skills inventory and fall short in analysis and forecasting. A well- designed skills management process injects a stronger dose of discipline, coordination, and planning into work force planning, strategic planning, professional training and development programs, resource allocation maneuvering, and risk analysis and assessment. Enterprises can reap several lessons from skills management. Skills management works if it G G G G GG Defines skills for roles Forces forward thinking Forces some documentation of what makes an IT professional especially proficient Strengthens the organization Leads to focused training, risk assessment, sourcing strategy, and resource allocation via gap identification Attracts high-level endorsement Does not define work roles Lacks plans or incentive for refreshment Communicates its purpose poorly Provides differing language and terminology Force-fits skills and work roles to policies, rather than driving new frameworksSkills management does not work if it G G G G G Project Management Skills Development 21 13_26_ch02. fm Page 22 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Skills Management Case Study A North American manufacturing company set a goal to boost revenue by $300 million within three years. Key to the growth was a new way of dealing with information and IT. First, hoarding of information by divisions had to give way to enterprise ownership of information.Second, ubiquitous access to information required a managed and enterprise-wide migration to standards, interoperability, common platforms, and client/server technology. Finally, the vision of ubiquitous access depended on substantially upgrading the IT organizations skill base, supplementing and supplanting mainframe skills with skills associated with distributed processing and client/server application development.The company embarked on an ambitious initiative designed to cultivate the technical skills and business understanding of the IT professionals. The initiativenotably, company-wide skill identification and continuous trainingwill help the comp any to raise its skills level and will give IT employees control of their professional development. Elements of the IT professional development initiative included GIdentifying eight areas of IT professional skills, technical skills being only one area (a detailed discussion on the eight areas identified follows this list) Assigning company values to skills for the near term, short term, and long term Evaluating employee competence levels within the eight areas of IT professional skills Providing continuous training in critical skills, both technical and non-technical Establishing an IT mentor program Supervisors providing performance planning and coaching Establishing team and peer feedback Flattening the IT organization from 18 to 5 titles Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project ManagersG G G G G G G 22 13_26_ch02. fm Page 23 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G Mapping skills and performance values to salary zones within the flatter organization With the help of outside experts, IT exe cutives identified more than 125 skills in eight areas of IT professional development. The eight areas of focus for IT professional development and a sampling of associated skills include GCustomer focusemployee possesses knowledge of customers business needs and expectations delivers constructive qualitative feedback to customers, meets deadlines, and works with customers to set requirements and schedules Technical skillsemployee possesses skills related to programming, computer-aided software engineering, desktop client services, enterprise infrastructure applications, technical software, and hardware support Product or technology evaluation and expertiseemployee analyzes and compares products, makes sound recommendations within the company architecture, understands and recognizes limitations of technologies, can communicate the fundamentals of technology to others, and uses technical team resources to resolve or avoid technology-based problems Business and application expertiseem ployee possesses knowledge of business-specific applications, knows companys business and local operations, knows the broad application environments (e. g. order entry and accounting), and understands general concepts of business management Project managementemployee handles projects of certain size and complexity, estimates project costs and schedules with a degree of accuracy, executes project to plan, manages multiple projects at once, builds teams and organizes team resources, and knows project management tools Interpersonal skillsemployee performs as team member or team leader, contributes knowledge to the team and to the organization, and communicates effectively Administrative skills employee has understanding of budgeting, interviewing, economics of the business, and salary and review process 23 G G G G G G Project Management Skills Development 13_26_ch02. fm Page 24 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM G Soft skillsemployee displays leadership, forward thinking, initiative, dri ve for education, and commitment to organizational structure and development.Each skill receives a weighting factor based on its strategic significance to the company during the next 12 months, the next 12 to 24 months, and the next 24 to 60 months. A skill considered critical to the company earns a weight of 6 a skill with no value to the company earns a weight of 0. After the company skills are identified and their weights assigned, employee skills are crosschecked against the company skills and assigned a score based on the employees competence level. Employee competence levels range from 6 to 1, that is, from mastery to basic understanding. (A competence score of zero is reserved for skills that are either not applicable or not possessed by the employee. Employees then compare their competence scores with those they receive from their peers, team leaders, and supervisors. To see the scoring mechanism in action, assume that the company assigns COBOL programming skills a weight of 4 for the next 12 months and a weight of 3 for the following 12 to 24 months. At the same time, an IT employee earns a score of 3 for average skills in COBOL programming. Given the framework, the value of those skills to the employee will be 12 during the next 12 months, but the value will decline to 9 during the next 12 to 24 months. Continuous training is considered essential to the programs success. Here, the IT executives are seeking to develop an implicit promise between the company and the employees.The company promises to provide the resources and opportunities for trainingtime, funding, and identification and valuation of strategic skills if the employees promise to use the training to bridge gaps in the company skills base and in their own skill levels. Armed with the company skills inventory and personal competence scores, employees who take the appropriate training will see their value to the company rise. Employees who choose to forgo appropriate training will see their value diminish. On the plus side, the skills and training program has forced the company to view the IT organization in terms of skills and long-term corporate objectives, not simply in terms of head count.Moreover, employees have responded positively to a program that puts professional development in their hands. On the negative side, skills identification and buy-in from IT managers take so long that the initiative risks losing momentum. 24 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers 13_26_ch02. fm Page 25 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM Keys to a Successful Skills Management Endeavor Three areas must be worked out for a skills management initiative to be successful 1. Employees have to adopt the program as their own, rather than as a management dictate, including the employees assuming control of their own professional development 2. Supervisors have to surrender some control over employee development 3.Executives must ensure that employees use metrics as a tool for profession al development, not as a weapon in cutthroat competition As enterprises turn to technology to reach the next level of corporate performance, IT organizations should identify the skills they need to meet the corporate objectives. Through a program of skills identification, IT organizations can see the holes in their coverage, set priorities for projects, define which training is required, and determine which skills may need third-party coverage. A commitment to funding for training is essential. Conclusions Rarely has a professional field evolved as rapidly as project management. It is totally different from what it was even 10 years ago.The struggle to stay abreast of new and rapidly evolving technologies, to deal with accumulated development and maintenance backlogs, and to cope with people issues has become a treadmill race as software groups work hard just to stay in place. A key goal of disciplined project managers is to avoid the surprises that can occur when these surprises al most always lead to bad news canceled projects, late delivery, cost overruns, dissatisfied customers, outsourcing, termination, and unemployment. Indeed, we need to develop management by surprise (MBS) as a project management technique Keys to a Successful Skills Management Endeavor 25 13_26_ch02. fm Page 26 Friday, September 8, 2000 243 PM As we have discussed in this chapter, project managers are a special breed of people.The skills that they develop are a cross between a diplomat, ballet dancer, and a Marine Corps drill sergeantall while having the patience of Job. These skills will serve them well for future higher-level positions as Vice Presidents, Chief Information Officers (CIOs), and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the corporations for which they work. The culture of an organization is a critical success factor in its efforts to survive, improve, and flourish. A culture based on a commitment to project management and delivering quality projects and effective management d ifferentiates a team that practices excellent project management from a flock of individual programmers doing their best to ship code. Projects rarely failbut people do. 26 Chapter 2 Basic Skills for Project Managers

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Classical Art Remakes Preserve Cultural Heritage for Future Generations Essay

I. Introduction Hook New predilection it is well forgotten old (Geoffrey Chaucer) Thesis I strongly belief that guiltless art remakes preserve heathen heritage for future genesiss, and the purpose of this paper is to prove it. II. Body A. Topic sentence First, until further arguments, it is cardinal to give the pay off meaning of the word remake. 1. Translation classics art into the language of the modernity. 2. Newer version or interpretation 3. Not a parody B.Topic sentence Second, the remake allows the young generation to encounter with deep knowledge that has been embedded by expectant creators in their non text editionual matters. 1. Bottomless meaning 2. The remake is a lifebuoy 3. New life to long-forgotten artwork C. Topic sentence Finally, main goal of remakes is not only the preservation of cultural heritage, besides also are to preserve historical heritage and to memorialize the names of great and talented people. 1. A sign of ultimate fame of the original ar t 2. Highest preponderance 3.Absentee readers are always more than confrontations. III. Conclusion New idea it is well forgotten old (Geoffrey Chaucer) Classical art is a moral category, which is carrying the eternal content. Unfortunately, the classics, such us literature, cinematography or painting, is losing its relevance under the ascertain of time. Only remakes of classic art-works are evidence of their immortality. Someone thinks that remake is just another way to extract money, for example, from viewers, which wanted to see their favorite movie in the stark naked interpretation.However, I strongly belief that Graeco-Roman art remakes preserve cultural heritage for future generations, and the purpose of this paper is to prove it. First, until further arguments, it is important to give the correct meaning of the word remake. Definition of the remake is quite simple it is translation classics art into the language of the modernity. In other words, the remake it is a newer version or interpretation of previously published work. It is not a parody and does not quote a source, moreover remake fills classics with new and germane(predicate) content, but with caution on the sample.The author of remake does not look like parodist he is not looking for weak spots of classical artwork to expose their murderous ridicule. On the contrary, remaker finely and carefully refers to the words, of which was woven the old fabric of the novel. Remeyker reflects on every character, every plot turn, stares at the old(prenominal) line, Remaker may be repeated passages of the original plot, types of characters, but he or she depicts them in a new historical, social and political conditions. Remakes chosen as the new heroes, the new women, centerfold, mental retardation, AIDS, drug users, and hackers.All of these characters for the most part people are good, spiritually rich, suffer reflection, ready to sacrifice, etc. Second, the remake allows the younger generation to encounter with deep knowledge that has been embedded by great creators in their artworks. Classical art is full of bottomless meaning, useful for our youth, but it is very embarrassing to reach them through stall of misunderstanding, because of the difference between modernity and the past. I take the example of classical literature remake to verify it.If the young throw reader is looking for models for answers to the vexed questions Who I am? How to survive in the world? it is unlikely that the classic book will not be commensurate to help him, because it is written in inaccessible and incomprehensible to him language. The reader is looking for the book, which speaks directly, without allegory. In this cause, the modern detective story-remake about official corruption and criminal postiche will touch the reader more alive than the Dead Souls, written about the same thing, but on the outdated language.Consequently, due to a remake, the classics artwork remains indestructible. The remake is a lifebuoy, which was thrown to drowning classical art. For example, a reader would pick up the new-Idiot, a colorful mix of photo models, expensive cars, luxury suites, black criminals would fascinate him. The reader had read to the end of the novel, and it was not about our time, it still would be Dostoevskys immortal creation. Due to remake, the reader was acquainted with the great writer Dostoevsky.If it was not interesting remake, adapted for modern times, I do not think that the idea of reading Dostoevskys books came to the modern readers head, because it seemed to him too boring. Another example to proof that remakes give new life to long-forgotten artwork. There was very popular film of Vera Storozheva Heaven. Aircraft. Girl. This picture is a remake of the Soviet film Once again about love. The younger generation is unlikely to fetch seen the original, but the storyline and drama, as reflected in the film, which starred Renata Litvinova, many have seen.The refore, a remake it is second youth of the old classics. Perhaps remakes creating of the same classical can be every ten years. For the reason that, terminology is age faster than the artwork is goes around the world, and it proves that remakes preserve the art and sneaked it through the years, but the remakers had to modify the original. Finally, main goal of remakes is not only the preservation of cultural heritage, but also are to preserve historical heritage and to immortalize the names of great and talented people.Theremake, its a sign of ultimate fame of the original art, its highest prevalence in the general cultural refinement of the horizon of the nation steady as a folded label, the most general idea of the plot. I do not think that Anna Karenina Tolstoys novel was reading by millions, but millions know that the heroine of this novel, committed suicide under the wheels of a train because of unrequited love. match to the article Remakes or expansion of the classics w ritten by Marina Zagidullina and published in journal UFO in 2004, absentee readers are always more than face to face. The fame of the text is not only measured data forms libraries and sales The above given arguments witness in favor of my opinion that classical art remakes preserve cultural heritage for future generations. In conclusion I want to emphasise that classic is like a queen, and a remake is her true servant even involuntarily, but he exposes his back, so she stepped through him in the future. Remake is a dialogue with classical artworks it makes todays mass audience to feel pertain in the great history of our past.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Capstone Project Essay

IntroductionThe use of electronic network services is increasing the care amount of copper and fiber cabling. This results in an ever increasing workload that must be maintained or reconfigured resulting in challenges to organizational profitability. One of the challenges that arises is how does an administrator maintain a complex work environment when incr quietusd profits, fewer capital and in operation(p) resources are limited. One might suggest growing a complex network infrastructure requires operation efficiency with a desire to manage and protect cables with forbidden interrupting the workflow for customers. However, apt(p) the challenges affecting wireless service standrs maintaining think and quality are just the fundamentals.The administrator is limited to the organizations profitability and cost variance when determining the best approach. These factors play a role which will seeming affect the infrastructure as a whole. It is interesting enough to point out that towards the perspective of a network administrator an issue should remain sleeping and should never happen when the proper implications are set in place. However, because we live in an intractable world the possibility for a scenario is plausible.Capstone Proposal stockyAs a volunteer for a network guarantor sight for Aon tummy the following survey was designed to point out vulnerabilities indoors the organizational network hosts specifically under the surety office location where class mates using workstations were experiencing frustrating issues pertaining to network instability. The survey was int polish offed to identify on whether security implications were required so that an upgrade request may be delivered. A staff meeting was set in place where weinterviewed the lymph node regarding their needs. It is ever so a good choice to view the fundamental needs of the client prior to fashioning some(prenominal) changes to the network. After spending several hours brai nstorming the clients demands a solution has been r distributivelyed. The see setting has been laid out clearly. During my seasonframe interviewing the client I have gained the necessary background knowledge to understand my clients visions building a strong mutual connection.Understanding this connection has entitled me to diagnose the network accordingly. As a part of the survey Aon Corp has several requirements prior to jumping into the declare oneself. First it was mandatory to inspect the minimum system requirements of the client machines. In the past latency issues have derived primarily to out of date hardware or device drivers as opposed to a security breach. It is always a wise choice to update these patterns while data track the appropriate operating system updates which may all be contributing factors. During the prerequisite stage of the survey the required information is gathered to develop an effective network survey which would alleviate resource constraint.Rati onal & Systems AnalysisIt is always a wise choice to research similar case studies that may provide beneficial information relating to similar scenarios. I have done as such building my intellectual of these scenarios which has a given me some background to my clients concerns. some(prenominal) user friendly applications have offered me assistance analyzing security loop holes. They are the Microsoft service line security measures Analyzer (MBSA) and Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). With accordance to the Microsoft website the Microsoft Baseline aegis Analyzer is a user friendly appliance emphasized for technicians with a focus on assisting medium sized agate linees. The tool focuses on the security state of the network with accordance to Microsoft recommendations providing repointlines and support.The user may download Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) from Microsoft.com as it is a well-known tool for all IT technicians. at once the tool has been success dea ry installed the administrator has the ability to scan multiple end users on the local network median. Upon goal of the scan the user is delivered a enshroud highlighting potential threats along with missing updates. Some of these updates may include missing application patches, operations systemupdates, and advised the user on whether a Windows firewall is running. MBSA has the ability to examine administrative accounts along with password policies. See Figure A for example.Figure AAs technology advances, administrative technicians need to line up to the challenges ahead. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer is a great tool to maintain the integrity of your network infrastructure. Scott Lowe (2004), a Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer, said the following regarding the Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer Supporting a huge number of Microsoft applications, MBSA can serve you in two ways. First, it will help you keep your emcees protected from problems guerrilla, with powerful account capabilities, it can help you actually learn why you need to do the things that are suggested so you can make an educated decision as to whether something is an delightful risk in your environment.Project Goals and ObjectivesThe objective towards the following project was to start a curriculum to upgrade Aon Corp network infrastructure alleviating latency issues meliorate improving the efficiency and flow of data across the network median. A current unstable network prolonged business growth capacity making it difficult for end users to utilize resources effectively. Without the essential resources company growth was at a bottleneck. Breaking down the goals and objectives for the following project was essential in providing a remedy to the issue, they are as follows Client must receive a current system image snapshot- succeed of a workstation must be put down-Survey of a server must be documented-Microsoft Baseline Security tool must be run saving each workstation alo ng with the server A scheduled protocol platform must be provided articulating details for the client on overall performance and network stability. Client must be advised of a detailed schematic for preventative measures along with upkeep Client must be given aninstructional manual for managing updates related to the operating system and antivirus software program Client must be given an estimate on productivity along with return of investmentIn stray to show the deliverables to the client a solid fundamental understanding of the clients requirements must be developed. Acquiring a background understanding is essential in order to understand the business process and what the client wants to achieve out of their network infrastructure. Without understanding the big picture the project would certainly fail.Pre-SurveyClientMeetingThe goal and objective here was to initiate a meeting with the client to discuss the business orientation and the process relations to their workstations. The clients company being a training institution certain software was required in order for the firm to achieve their business goals. The applications required minimum system specs in order to run expeditiously. During the preliminary flesh of the meeting the business model and goals were discussed. Operational hours were taken into consideration as a set schedule was established for performing the survey. As the meeting came to an end a survey schematic was brought to the clients attention in order to calculate return on investment upon project completion (refer to cecal appendage 2). The success of the meeting was met and the first objective was complete.Upon the completion of the survey the client was provided with an executable plan laying out the details of the upgrade and preventative measures. However, the full execution will be help outside the Capstone it will be the key highlight to the success of the business goals.Network Security SurveyAs a prerequisite to the survey s everal spreadsheets having been compiled for capturing images of data (refer to concomitant 3 along with Appendix 4). The first document entitles end user computers and second focuses on servers. As for the MBSA scans for each workstation a thumb drive was used to save the results. Prior to beginning the survey an update was brought to my attention from the client that others may be working on these end-user machines as well. Because of my failure to follow through during the phone meeting advising of the time schedule, I needed to contact theother administrators advising them of my presence. Fortunately, as I arrived at the designated project site there were many computers to survey. I began to survey the end-user machines non being surveyed. About 3 minutes elapsed for each workstation to survey running Microsoft Baseline Security (MBSA) took to the highest degree 11 minutes.Unfortunately, I have missed my goal of reaching the estimated number of computers being surveys as disc ussed in the preliminary meeting. The survey elapsed more time than I have predicted. On the other hand it was pleasant to know that the other administrators finished their piece of land of the project just in time before I got to them. Surveying the workstations went according to schedule, however, as I approached the servers several problems aroused. The list of passwords the client provided did not comprise the correct characters as I flacked to log into the domain ascendancy.The owner has left the building and was unable to achieve my goal with surveying the servers as intend thus leaving my network security survey incomplete. The following twenty-four hours the owner has been contacted and a scheduled return visit was planned. As the domain controller was surveyed the security network part of the survey has been successfully completed. Despite the minor issues the survey went flawless I would have followed through with the client more efficiently if the same scenario woul d have repeated itself. The desired goal has been achieved and a data image has been captured so the proposal upgrade can be finalized.Proposal advertize PreparationThe upgrade proposal was designed to contain the following suggestions. Configuration of the Domain controllerConfiguration of the serverConfiguration of the workstationSuggestions for Malware/AntivirusReport for ROISecurity guide for the end-userTimeline of UpgradeAs assumptions defining the network configuration have been made. Unknowingly an assumption was made that the domain controller is established as the default gateway, DNS and DHCP server. I came to understand that their infrastructure was split into four subnets. ISA server was in between theISP acting as NAT, DNS, DHCP, and RRAS server. Logically understanding that their domain controller was their default gateway, DHCP, and DNS server the services were contained on the internal network. Failing to understand the possibility of a network perimeter my assumpt ions were incorrect. Eventually I was able to complete each chore item provided above a presentation with the client would finalize this portion of the project. The task was completed, however, not within the desired timeframe.Presentation ProposalAs the completion of the proposal has been achieved a client meeting has been scheduled. The agenda of the meeting is as follows1. Discussing survey results (network state)2. Hardware discussion / software suggestions3. Projected ROI and cost4. Questions5. Schedule executingDespite the presentation lasting 2 hours it was a success. Proper planning along with a satisfying network survey were the predecessors leading to this success. The network survey went very smooth and efficient. The proposal was straight to the point and meaningful for the client. As the following goal completed and the deliverables presented to the client project completion has been achieved. Due to the clients satisfactions with the deliverables the project has move d forward to the next portion of the upgrade phase.Project TimelineThe timeline of the project was compiled using a Gantt chart from the software Microsoft Office Project 2012. The project plan along with the details are listed in Figure B.As indicated in Figure B, the project time frame was expected to take 238 days. Several areas took time constraint. First the network survey as previously indicated where I failed to follow through with the client after the preliminary phase of the meeting. This resulted in the client plan students on campus on the same timeframe as the survey. Fortunately, therewere enough end-user computers to perform the survey. In time the remainder of the students have left the building freeing up those workstations as well.Forgetting to get a confirmation of the amount of workstations at the preliminary meeting indivertibly resulted in my underestimation of the amount of time it would take to survey the rack up amount of workstations. The client password l ist for the domain controllers portrayed to be the only problem I have run into when performing the survey resulting in a setback. Because I have forgotten to request the following information from the client the survey was setback from the estimated time for completion resulting in a day setback.Compiling the proposal was another task that was miscalculated. Fortunately, I was able to finalize the project in one day thus keeping the project within the constraints of the timeline. Client satisfaction was the ultimate goal as they were very grateful. It is expected that situations as such will not always go accordingly to plan however, without the clients support the project would not have gone as smooth. Planning a larger margin while taking a less raptorial attitude at the preliminary meeting would have avoided such issues.Project DevelopmentDuring the preliminary development of the following project, Aon Corps network infrastructure was purport in an unknown direction pertaining to its economic success. Instabilities in their security policy, workstations were exponentially getting slower each day. Students along with testers were losing hope in the integrity of the company. Their expectation was affecting performance along with business profit opportunities. The project I was assigned to revolve somewhat building a business by update their network infrastructure to a level of efficiency. The concentration of the project focused on performing an upgrade solution that would provide this efficiency to the client. Original snapshots of the network were based in the upgrade proposal plan which was used to optimize the network.The optimal goal of the project was to implement a network infrastructure that would be secure. Just like all problems issues aroused during the progression of the project. Students were scheduled to be in the building at the time of the survey a work around was developed as I was able to hinder another classroom. Upon completion of the workstations I was able to come back to the studentsclassroom which was cleared. Rearranging the order of the computers that have been surveyed the issue was concealed. Another situation that derived during development happened when I discovered that the client has given me the incorrect domain controller password list which did not contain the server administrative passwords. The lack of the following information would have definitely resulted in the project failing.Rescheduling the visit with the owner has alleviated this scenario. Unfortunately, because of the rescheduling the timeline has been pushed back preventing me from terminate the project within the completion period. Anticipating that the network domain controller would be a configured as a default gateway. Assumptions were proven wrong and the configuration process to longer than expected. Due to an ISA server on the network perimeter changes to the configurations proposal had to be made. Creating an ROI report was an other unanticipated event that was requested upon the client. ascertain the monetary cost was difficult when comparing the proposed and current network conditions. Consequently, changes had to be made to the customer question business survey to assist me in these calculations. Gracefully, the client was able to agree upon these terms.Actual and Potential EffectsMajority of the following section will focus on potential effects due to the project being a proposal. The project effects can be conceived by indicating that the client had a clear perspective towards the network infrastructure and how in its previous state it has manipulated business continuity. The client experienced the previous state and was provided with a schematic to the current stable state. Empowering the client with the details providing them with a clear understanding influenced them to take action thus changing their network infrastructure to one that works efficiently. The potential positives to the following p lan are as follows.Should the client observe with the proposal providing the solution to their network they will be rewarded with a network that is optimally configured. This will result in network operating efficiency and business processes will maintain its integrity. Less classroom interruptions will arouse related to workstation issues. Students taking tests will be less frustrated due to server crashes along with workstations. Customerconfidence in Aon corp will increase. The potential of business growth will result from the following project. There will be an ease of urgency related to network related issues. The organization can now focus on its business model focusing on their clients.ConclusionThe stretcher portrayed to be exciting yet challenging providing to be rewarding as well. In terms of goals and objectives I believe that it was successful. Client satisfaction has been achieved as each goal and object has been delivered. The reason why it was so successful and effe ctive is due to the methodical planning prior to the initiation of the project. The necessity of training along with the preliminary client meetings has given me the fundamental understand on how to start building the project. Building a plan has given me an effective tool to deliver the clients expectations.Attention to detail along with effective communication were advantage points that designed an effective proposal. The client was efficient in being proactive by understanding the problem at point and expressing their concerns. Together a proposed plan has been derived that would act as a roadmap to that optimal network infrastructure. Flexibility and client solitaire played an important role during the hiccup moments of the project. The ability to determine alternative routes in an event of hitting a wall is essential to the success of any project. As the project manager it was my pleasure to achieve the clients deliverables along with the satisfaction that they truly deserve. ReferencesKeystone Strategy, Inc Study (2005). Why IT Matters in Midsized Firms. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http//www.keyinc.com/it_matters.shtml.Lowe, Scott (2004). depose security settings on Windows XP using Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer 1.2. Retrieved June 23, 2007 from http//articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-1035_11-5221961.html. Microsoft (2007). City of Stratford Brings Down the Curtain on its Legacy System with Server Upgrade. Retrieved June 23, 2007 fromhttp//www.microsoft.com/canada/casestudies/cityofstratford.mspx. Microsoft(2007). Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer. Retrieved June 23, 2007 fromhttp//www.microsoft.com/technet/Security/tools/mbsahome.mspx. Microsoft (2007). Windows Vista Capable and Premium Ready PCs. Retrieved January 31, 2007 fromhttp//www.microsoft.com/windows/products/windowsvista/buyorupgr ade/capable.mspx.Sherman, Erik (2007). Investing in IT for a Competitive Edge. Retrieved January 31, 2007, fromhttp//www.microsoft.com/business/mome ntum/content/article.aspx?c Appendix 1 Capstone Competency MatrixThe graduate responds appropriately to diversity issues in the workplace. Implements an intuitive understanding of cultural and religious backgrounds open to opinions in an attempt to understand diverse perspectives within the organization. Upper Division Collegiate Level Reasoning and Problem Solving The graduate analyzes open-ended problems by learning about the problem and evaluating the accuracy and relevance of different Quality control is effective at determining common occurrences in issues therefore, updating rules/protocols alleviate the issue at point. Upper Division Collegiate Level Reasoning and Problem Solving The graduate recognizes the value of critical thinking in identifying and understanding the underlying structures of disciplines and professions. organizational issues are indifferent each day critical thinking along with brainstorming are essential in order to research a dissolver to problematic is sues. Upper Division Collegiate Level Reasoning and Problem Solving The graduate demonstrates effective presentational communication strategies in a given context. Applies trialand error to mimic the problem so applies extensive research in reaching a solution to the issue. The research along with the problem is then logged as evidence for future claims. phrase and CommunicationThe graduate applies foundational elements of effective communication Communicates effectively in a stressful environment providing attention to detail.Language and CommunicationThe graduate demonstrates effective presentational communication strategies in a given context. Evaluates graphical representation software to determine a flaw or an instability in performance/security of the organization.SecurityThe graduate identifies and discusses basic concepts of security and security threats, and recommends security procedures. Implements a secure environment for each individual(a) client PC educating users on the importance of potential threats to network security.SecurityThe graduate identifies security needs and recommends appropriate security practices for network infrastructure. Educates staff on the importance of implementing sufficient tools and policies in an attempt to protect the integrity of data crucial to the organization infrastructure.